Project tutorial
Incremental Speed Control of a Treadmill Motor

Incremental Speed Control of a Treadmill Motor © GPL3+

An inexpensive project that I put together to set the RPM of a treadmill motor at five preset speeds.

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Components and supplies

About this project

This project is about controlling the speed of a treadmill motor automatically for inexpensive treadmill powered machines that would benefit from having previously set speeds. Each time a push button is pressed the treadmill motor

Incremental Treadmill Motor Speed Control

Code

Incremental Treadmill Speed ControlC/C++
It is a incremental speed controller for a treadmill motor, five previously set speeds are selected using a single push button.
No preview (download only).
Incremental Treadmill Speed ControlC/C++
/*
Tachometer using micros

On this sketch we are going to measure the period between 
pulses using the micros() function to get the RPM
(Revolutions Per Minute) from a sensor on pin 2.
This way of measuring RPM makes it accurate, responsive and 
versatile. No matter how fast or slow the loop is
running, the reading accuracy is not going to be affected. 
Although, the faster you run the loop, the more amount
of readings you are going to be able to display every 
second.

It's coded in a way that the micros rollover doesn't create 
glitches every 71 minutes, so it can run forever
without problems.

We use an interrupt for the input so you have to choose pin 
2 or 3 (for Arduino Uno/nano). In this example we
use pin 2.

This sketch was made for my video tutorial shown here: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2uJMJWsfsg

Made by InterlinkKnight
Last update: 05/23/2019
*/



///////////////
// Calibration:
///////////////

const byte PulsesPerRevolution = 1;  // Set how many pulses 
there are on each revolution. Default: 2.


// If the period between pulses is too high, or even if the 
pulses stopped, then we would get stuck showing the
// last value instead of a 0. Because of this we are going 
to set a limit for the maximum period allowed.
// If the period is above this value, the RPM will show as 
0.
// The higher the set value, the longer lag/delay will have 
to sense that pulses stopped, but it will allow readings
// at very low RPM.
// Setting a low value is going to allow the detection of 
stop situations faster, but it will prevent having low RPM 
readings.
// The unit is in microseconds.
const unsigned long ZeroTimeout = 300000;  // For high 
response time, a good value would be 100000.
                                           // For reading 
very low RPM, a good value would be 300000.


// Calibration for smoothing RPM:
const byte numReadings = 2;  // Number of samples for 
smoothing. The higher, the more smoothing, but it's going 
to
                             // react slower to changes. 1 
= no smoothing. Default: 2.





/////////////
// Variables:
/////////////

volatile unsigned long LastTimeWeMeasured;  // Stores the 
last time we measured a pulse so we can calculate the 
period.
volatile unsigned long PeriodBetweenPulses = ZeroTimeout
+1000;  // Stores the period between pulses in 
microseconds.
                       // It has a big number so it doesn't 
start with 0 which would be interpreted as a high 
frequency.
volatile unsigned long PeriodAverage = ZeroTimeout+1000;  
// Stores the period between pulses in microseconds in 
total, if we are taking multiple pulses.
                       // It has a big number so it doesn't 
start with 0 which would be interpreted as a high 
frequency.
unsigned long FrequencyRaw;  // Calculated frequency, based 
on the period. This has a lot of extra decimals without the 
decimal point.
unsigned long FrequencyReal;  // Frequency without 
decimals.
unsigned long RPM;  // Raw RPM without any processing.
unsigned int PulseCounter = 1;  // Counts the amount of 
pulse readings we took so we can average multiple pulses 
before calculating the period.

unsigned long PeriodSum; // Stores the summation of all the 
periods to do the average.

unsigned long LastTimeCycleMeasure = LastTimeWeMeasured;  
// Stores the last time we measure a pulse in that cycle.
                                    // We need a variable 
with a value that is not going to be affected by the 
interrupt
                                    // because we are going 
to do math and functions that are going to mess up if the 
values
                                    // changes in the 
middle of the cycle.
unsigned long CurrentMicros = micros();  // Stores the 
micros in that cycle.
                                         // We need a 
variable with a value that is not going to be affected by 
the interrupt
                                         // because we are 
going to do math and functions that are going to mess up if 
the values
                                         // changes in the 
middle of the cycle.

// We get the RPM by measuring the time between 2 or more 
pulses so the following will set how many pulses to
// take before calculating the RPM. 1 would be the minimum 
giving a result every pulse, which would feel very 
responsive
// even at very low speeds but also is going to be less 
accurate at higher speeds.
// With a value around 10 you will get a very accurate 
result at high speeds, but readings at lower speeds are 
going to be
// farther from eachother making it less "real time" at 
those speeds.
// There's a function that will set the value depending on 
the speed so this is done automatically.
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define OLED_WIDTH 128
#define OLED_HEIGHT 64

#define OLED_ADDR   0x3C

Adafruit_SSD1306 display(OLED_WIDTH, OLED_HEIGHT);
unsigned int AmountOfReadings = 1;

unsigned int ZeroDebouncingExtra;  // Stores the extra 
value added to the ZeroTimeout to debounce it.
                                   // The ZeroTimeout needs 
debouncing so when the value is close to the threshold it
                                   // doesn't jump from 0 
to the value. This extra value changes the threshold a 
little
                                   // when we show a 0.

// Variables for smoothing tachometer:
unsigned long readings[numReadings];  // The input.
unsigned long readIndex;  // The index of the current 
reading.
unsigned long total;  // The running total.
unsigned long average;  // The RPM value after applying the 
smoothing.


void isr()          //interrupt service routine
{

} 

const int MOTOR = 3;            //Motor connected to 
digital pin 3
const int BUTTON = 4;           //Button connected to pin 4
boolean lastButton = LOW;       //Variable containing the 
previous
                                //button state
boolean currentButton = LOW;    //Variable containing the 
current
                                //button state

int speedIncrement = 0;




void setup()  // Start of setup:
{
  display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, OLED_ADDR);
  display.clearDisplay();
  digitalWrite (2 ,HIGH);
  display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, OLED_ADDR);
 display.clearDisplay();
   
digitalWrite(2 ,HIGH);// Instead of using a pull up 
resistor
attachInterrupt(0,isr,RISING);  //attaching the interrupt
  pinMode (MOTOR, OUTPUT);      //Set the MOTOR pin as an 
output
  pinMode (BUTTON, INPUT);      //Set button as an input
}
  /*
* Debouncing Funtion
* Pass it the previous button state,
* and get back the current debounced button state.
*/
boolean debounce(boolean last)
{
  boolean current = digitalRead(BUTTON);    //Read the 
button state
  if (last != current)                      //if it's 
different
  {
      delay(5);                             //wait 5ms
      current = digitalRead(BUTTON);        //read it again
    }
    return current;
}

/*
*Motor Speed Selection
*Pass a number for the Motor speed and set it
*/

void setSpeed(int increment)

{
  
  //speed one
  if (increment == 1)
  
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 50);//Original values 110 150 180 200 
255
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("*");
  display.display();
  }
  
  else if (increment == 2)
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 75);
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("**");
  display.display();
  }
  else if (increment == 3)
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 100);
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("***");
  display.display();
  }
  else if (increment == 4)
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 125);
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("****");
  display.display();
  }
  else if (increment == 5)
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 150);
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("*****");
  display.display();
  }
  
  //OFF 
  else
  {
  analogWrite(MOTOR, 0);
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(60, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("0");
  display.display();
  }
  
  attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(2), Pulse_Event, 
RISING);  // Enable interruption pin 2 when going from LOW 
to HIGH.

  delay(1000);  // We sometimes take several readings of 
the period to average. Since we don't have any readings
                // stored we need a high enough value in 
micros() so if divided is not going to give negative 
values.
                // The delay allows the micros() to be high 
enough for the first few cycles.

}  // End of setup.





void loop()  // Start of loop:
{


    currentButton = debounce(lastButton);              
//read debounce state
  if (lastButton == LOW && currentButton == HIGH)     //if 
it was pressed
  {
    speedIncrement++;                                    
//Increment motor speed
  }
  lastButton = currentButton;                          
//reset button value
  
  //if cycled through all speed increments
  //reset the speed to 0
  if (speedIncrement == 6)  speedIncrement = 0;
  
  setSpeed(speedIncrement);
  // The following is going to store the two values that 
might change in the middle of the cycle.
  // We are going to do math and functions with those 
values and they can create glitches if they change in the
  // middle of the cycle.
  LastTimeCycleMeasure = LastTimeWeMeasured;  // Store the 
LastTimeWeMeasured in a variable.
  CurrentMicros = micros();  // Store the micros() in a 
variable.

  // CurrentMicros should always be higher than 
LastTimeWeMeasured, but in rare occasions that's not true.
  // I'm not sure why this happens, but my solution is to 
compare both and if CurrentMicros is lower than
  // LastTimeCycleMeasure I set it as the CurrentMicros.
  // The need of fixing this is that we later use this 
information to see if pulses stopped.
  if(CurrentMicros < LastTimeCycleMeasure)
  {
    LastTimeCycleMeasure = CurrentMicros;
  }
  // Calculate the frequency:
  FrequencyRaw = 10000000000 / PeriodAverage;  // Calculate 
the frequency using the period between pulses.
  
  // Detect if pulses stopped or frequency is too low, so 
we can show 0 Frequency:
  if(PeriodBetweenPulses > ZeroTimeout - 
ZeroDebouncingExtra || CurrentMicros - LastTimeCycleMeasure 
> ZeroTimeout - ZeroDebouncingExtra)
  {  // If the pulses are too far apart that we reached the 
timeout for zero:
    FrequencyRaw = 0;  // Set frequency as 0.
    ZeroDebouncingExtra = 2000;  // Change the threshold a 
little so it doesn't bounce.
  }
  else
  {
    ZeroDebouncingExtra = 0;  // Reset the threshold to the 
normal value so it doesn't bounce.
  }

  FrequencyReal = FrequencyRaw / 10000;  // Get frequency 
without decimals.
                                          // This is not 
used to calculate RPM but we remove the decimals just in 
case
                                          // you want to 
print it.

  // Calculate the RPM:
  RPM = FrequencyRaw / PulsesPerRevolution * 60;  // 
Frequency divided by amount of pulses per revolution 
multiply by
                                                  // 60 
seconds to get minutes.
  RPM = RPM / 10000;  // Remove the decimals.

  // Smoothing RPM:
  total = total - readings[readIndex];  // Advance to the 
next position in the array.
  readings[readIndex] = RPM;  // Takes the value that we 
are going to smooth.
  total = total + readings[readIndex];  // Add the reading 
to the total.
  readIndex = readIndex + 1;  // Advance to the next 
position in the array.

  if (readIndex >= numReadings)  // If we're at the end of 
the array:
  {
    readIndex = 0;  // Reset array index.
  }
  
  // Calculate the average:
  average = total / numReadings;  // The average value it's 
the smoothed result.

  
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.setTextSize(2);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(0, 0);// Vertical, Horizontal.
  display.println("RPM:");
  display.setTextSize(5);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(0,25);
  display.println(RPM); 
  display.display();
}  // End of loop.

void Pulse_Event()  // The interrupt runs this to calculate 
the period between pulses:
{

  PeriodBetweenPulses = micros() - LastTimeWeMeasured;  // 
Current "micros" minus the old "micros" when the last pulse 
happens.
                                                        // 
This will result with the period (microseconds) between 
both pulses.
                                                        // 
The way is made, the overflow of the "micros" is not going 
to cause any issue.

  LastTimeWeMeasured = micros();  // Stores the current 
micros so the next time we have a pulse we would have 
something to compare with.

  if(PulseCounter >= AmountOfReadings)  // If counter for 
amount of readings reach the set limit:
  {
    PeriodAverage = PeriodSum / AmountOfReadings;  // 
Calculate the final period dividing the sum of all readings 
by the
                                                   // 
amount of readings to get the average.
    PulseCounter = 1;  // Reset the counter to start over. 
The reset value is 1 because its the minimum setting 
allowed (1 reading).
    PeriodSum = PeriodBetweenPulses;  // Reset PeriodSum to 
start a new averaging operation.


    // Change the amount of readings depending on the 
period between pulses.
    // To be very responsive, ideally we should read every 
pulse. The problem is that at higher speeds the period gets
    // too low decreasing the accuracy. To get more 
accurate readings at higher speeds we should get multiple 
pulses and
    // average the period, but if we do that at lower 
speeds then we would have readings too far apart (laggy or 
sluggish).
    // To have both advantages at different speeds, we will 
change the amount of readings depending on the period 
between pulses.
    // Remap period to the amount of readings:
    int RemapedAmountOfReadings = map(PeriodBetweenPulses, 
40000, 5000, 1, 10);  // Remap the period range to the 
reading range.
    // 1st value is what are we going to remap. In this 
case is the PeriodBetweenPulses.
    // 2nd value is the period value when we are going to 
have only 1 reading. The higher it is, the lower RPM has to 
be to reach 1 reading.
    // 3rd value is the period value when we are going to 
have 10 readings. The higher it is, the lower RPM has to be 
to reach 10 readings.
    // 4th and 5th values are the amount of readings range.
    RemapedAmountOfReadings = constrain
(RemapedAmountOfReadings, 1, 10);  // Constrain the value 
so it doesn't go below or above the limits.
    AmountOfReadings = RemapedAmountOfReadings;  // Set 
amount of readings as the remaped value.
  }
  else
  {
    PulseCounter++;  // Increase the counter for amount of 
readings by 1.
    PeriodSum = PeriodSum + PeriodBetweenPulses;  // Add 
the periods so later we can average.
  }

}  // End of Pulse_Event.

Schematics

Wiring Layout
A wiring layout for this project more information is provided in my video.
Arduin incremental speed control lnmfw9nbhq

Comments

Author

Default
PracticeMakesBetter
  • 3 projects
  • 1 follower

Additional contributors

  • An incremental control of a dc motor sketch by eTech Tom
  • A tachometer sketch using a hall sensor by Interlink Knight

Published on

January 29, 2020
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