Arduino/Photon Remote Control - A First Introduction

Arduino/Photon Remote Control - A First Introduction © GPL3+

With the help of Firmata, the Arduino or Particle devices control from the PC.

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Components and supplies

A000066 iso both
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
×1
Photon new
Particle Photon
as an optional device with integrated LED on Port 7
×1
09590 01
LED (generic)
×1

Apps and online services

About this project

Introduction

Today, we look at the possibility of how to use the Firmata software to program the Arduino only once and from now on we control its ports via a standardized protocol from the PC or other minicomputers, which do not have I/O ports themselves.

  • Step 1
  • Flash the example sketch with Arduino IDE (Online-IDE will not work).
  • Start your Arduino IDE and choose File-Example-Firmata-StandardFirmata-Sketch.
  • Flash this example to your Arduino Uno.

Step 2

Put a generic LED to GND and 13 to check the result that your circuit work.

Step 3

Download a Firmata Test Executive from this page to your PC or other minicomputers (in my case here I attached the firmata_test.exe for Windows-PC).

Step 4

Execute the downloaded file on your PC:

This "firmata_test" program works with boards running StandardFirmata version 2.2 or higher on standard Baud rate 57600.

You can quickly test your hardware (the Arduino Device), this stand-alone program can access all pins. It runs from a single file (no installation needed), for quick and easy testing!

Step 5

Set Pin 13 to Output and play with "High" and "Low" to put on/off your generic LED.

With the StandardFirmata program on the Arduino, no further updates of the Arduino are necessary: instead, StandardFirmata allow read and write access to all inputs and outputs of the Arduino via the Firmata protocol. If this program runs on the Arduino, the corresponding Firmata programs on the PC can use the entire bandwidth of the Arduino functions.

Remark: For the trailers of Particle devices like Photon. Core: Here it works the same way! Use the library of Firmata, which is made online via the Particle IDE, and flash the standardfirmata.ino on your device.

The Windows test program for checking the ports to be controlled also works here and lets you control the internal LED on pin 7. Is that cool or not?

In order to develop Firmata programs, I refer to the programming language Processing. Here is a helpful link for further steps.

Like my description? You will find more under my account. Follow me to be notified when I publish new projects!

Here is my Paypal link.

Code

StandardFirmata-Sketch from Arduino IDE ExampleC/C++
/*
  Firmata is a generic protocol for communicating with microcontrollers
  from software on a host computer. It is intended to work with
  any host computer software package.

  To download a host software package, please click on the following link
  to open the list of Firmata client libraries in your default browser.

  https://github.com/firmata/arduino#firmata-client-libraries

  Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Hans-Christoph Steiner.  All rights reserved.
  Copyright (C) 2010-2011 Paul Stoffregen.  All rights reserved.
  Copyright (C) 2009 Shigeru Kobayashi.  All rights reserved.
  Copyright (C) 2009-2016 Jeff Hoefs.  All rights reserved.

  This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
  License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
  version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

  See file LICENSE.txt for further informations on licensing terms.

  Last updated October 16th, 2016
*/

#include <Servo.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Firmata.h>

#define I2C_WRITE                   B00000000
#define I2C_READ                    B00001000
#define I2C_READ_CONTINUOUSLY       B00010000
#define I2C_STOP_READING            B00011000
#define I2C_READ_WRITE_MODE_MASK    B00011000
#define I2C_10BIT_ADDRESS_MODE_MASK B00100000
#define I2C_END_TX_MASK             B01000000
#define I2C_STOP_TX                 1
#define I2C_RESTART_TX              0
#define I2C_MAX_QUERIES             8
#define I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED  -1

// the minimum interval for sampling analog input
#define MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL   1


/*==============================================================================
 * GLOBAL VARIABLES
 *============================================================================*/

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
SerialFirmata serialFeature;
#endif

/* analog inputs */
int analogInputsToReport = 0; // bitwise array to store pin reporting

/* digital input ports */
byte reportPINs[TOTAL_PORTS];       // 1 = report this port, 0 = silence
byte previousPINs[TOTAL_PORTS];     // previous 8 bits sent

/* pins configuration */
byte portConfigInputs[TOTAL_PORTS]; // each bit: 1 = pin in INPUT, 0 = anything else

/* timer variables */
unsigned long currentMillis;        // store the current value from millis()
unsigned long previousMillis;       // for comparison with currentMillis
unsigned int samplingInterval = 19; // how often to run the main loop (in ms)

/* i2c data */
struct i2c_device_info {
  byte addr;
  int reg;
  byte bytes;
  byte stopTX;
};

/* for i2c read continuous more */
i2c_device_info query[I2C_MAX_QUERIES];

byte i2cRxData[64];
boolean isI2CEnabled = false;
signed char queryIndex = -1;
// default delay time between i2c read request and Wire.requestFrom()
unsigned int i2cReadDelayTime = 0;

Servo servos[MAX_SERVOS];
byte servoPinMap[TOTAL_PINS];
byte detachedServos[MAX_SERVOS];
byte detachedServoCount = 0;
byte servoCount = 0;

boolean isResetting = false;

// Forward declare a few functions to avoid compiler errors with older versions
// of the Arduino IDE.
void setPinModeCallback(byte, int);
void reportAnalogCallback(byte analogPin, int value);
void sysexCallback(byte, byte, byte*);

/* utility functions */
void wireWrite(byte data)
{
#if ARDUINO >= 100
  Wire.write((byte)data);
#else
  Wire.send(data);
#endif
}

byte wireRead(void)
{
#if ARDUINO >= 100
  return Wire.read();
#else
  return Wire.receive();
#endif
}

/*==============================================================================
 * FUNCTIONS
 *============================================================================*/

void attachServo(byte pin, int minPulse, int maxPulse)
{
  if (servoCount < MAX_SERVOS) {
    // reuse indexes of detached servos until all have been reallocated
    if (detachedServoCount > 0) {
      servoPinMap[pin] = detachedServos[detachedServoCount - 1];
      if (detachedServoCount > 0) detachedServoCount--;
    } else {
      servoPinMap[pin] = servoCount;
      servoCount++;
    }
    if (minPulse > 0 && maxPulse > 0) {
      servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), minPulse, maxPulse);
    } else {
      servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin));
    }
  } else {
    Firmata.sendString("Max servos attached");
  }
}

void detachServo(byte pin)
{
  servos[servoPinMap[pin]].detach();
  // if we're detaching the last servo, decrement the count
  // otherwise store the index of the detached servo
  if (servoPinMap[pin] == servoCount && servoCount > 0) {
    servoCount--;
  } else if (servoCount > 0) {
    // keep track of detached servos because we want to reuse their indexes
    // before incrementing the count of attached servos
    detachedServoCount++;
    detachedServos[detachedServoCount - 1] = servoPinMap[pin];
  }

  servoPinMap[pin] = 255;
}

void enableI2CPins()
{
  byte i;
  // is there a faster way to do this? would probaby require importing
  // Arduino.h to get SCL and SDA pins
  for (i = 0; i < TOTAL_PINS; i++) {
    if (IS_PIN_I2C(i)) {
      // mark pins as i2c so they are ignore in non i2c data requests
      setPinModeCallback(i, PIN_MODE_I2C);
    }
  }

  isI2CEnabled = true;

  Wire.begin();
}

/* disable the i2c pins so they can be used for other functions */
void disableI2CPins() {
  isI2CEnabled = false;
  // disable read continuous mode for all devices
  queryIndex = -1;
}

void readAndReportData(byte address, int theRegister, byte numBytes, byte stopTX) {
  // allow I2C requests that don't require a register read
  // for example, some devices using an interrupt pin to signify new data available
  // do not always require the register read so upon interrupt you call Wire.requestFrom()
  if (theRegister != I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED) {
    Wire.beginTransmission(address);
    wireWrite((byte)theRegister);
    Wire.endTransmission(stopTX); // default = true
    // do not set a value of 0
    if (i2cReadDelayTime > 0) {
      // delay is necessary for some devices such as WiiNunchuck
      delayMicroseconds(i2cReadDelayTime);
    }
  } else {
    theRegister = 0;  // fill the register with a dummy value
  }

  Wire.requestFrom(address, numBytes);  // all bytes are returned in requestFrom

  // check to be sure correct number of bytes were returned by slave
  if (numBytes < Wire.available()) {
    Firmata.sendString("I2C: Too many bytes received");
  } else if (numBytes > Wire.available()) {
    Firmata.sendString("I2C: Too few bytes received");
  }

  i2cRxData[0] = address;
  i2cRxData[1] = theRegister;

  for (int i = 0; i < numBytes && Wire.available(); i++) {
    i2cRxData[2 + i] = wireRead();
  }

  // send slave address, register and received bytes
  Firmata.sendSysex(SYSEX_I2C_REPLY, numBytes + 2, i2cRxData);
}

void outputPort(byte portNumber, byte portValue, byte forceSend)
{
  // pins not configured as INPUT are cleared to zeros
  portValue = portValue & portConfigInputs[portNumber];
  // only send if the value is different than previously sent
  if (forceSend || previousPINs[portNumber] != portValue) {
    Firmata.sendDigitalPort(portNumber, portValue);
    previousPINs[portNumber] = portValue;
  }
}

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * check all the active digital inputs for change of state, then add any events
 * to the Serial output queue using Serial.print() */
void checkDigitalInputs(void)
{
  /* Using non-looping code allows constants to be given to readPort().
   * The compiler will apply substantial optimizations if the inputs
   * to readPort() are compile-time constants. */
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 0 && reportPINs[0]) outputPort(0, readPort(0, portConfigInputs[0]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 1 && reportPINs[1]) outputPort(1, readPort(1, portConfigInputs[1]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 2 && reportPINs[2]) outputPort(2, readPort(2, portConfigInputs[2]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 3 && reportPINs[3]) outputPort(3, readPort(3, portConfigInputs[3]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 4 && reportPINs[4]) outputPort(4, readPort(4, portConfigInputs[4]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 5 && reportPINs[5]) outputPort(5, readPort(5, portConfigInputs[5]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 6 && reportPINs[6]) outputPort(6, readPort(6, portConfigInputs[6]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 7 && reportPINs[7]) outputPort(7, readPort(7, portConfigInputs[7]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 8 && reportPINs[8]) outputPort(8, readPort(8, portConfigInputs[8]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 9 && reportPINs[9]) outputPort(9, readPort(9, portConfigInputs[9]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 10 && reportPINs[10]) outputPort(10, readPort(10, portConfigInputs[10]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 11 && reportPINs[11]) outputPort(11, readPort(11, portConfigInputs[11]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 12 && reportPINs[12]) outputPort(12, readPort(12, portConfigInputs[12]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 13 && reportPINs[13]) outputPort(13, readPort(13, portConfigInputs[13]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 14 && reportPINs[14]) outputPort(14, readPort(14, portConfigInputs[14]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 15 && reportPINs[15]) outputPort(15, readPort(15, portConfigInputs[15]), false);
}

// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/* sets the pin mode to the correct state and sets the relevant bits in the
 * two bit-arrays that track Digital I/O and PWM status
 */
void setPinModeCallback(byte pin, int mode)
{
  if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_IGNORE)
    return;

  if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_I2C && isI2CEnabled && mode != PIN_MODE_I2C) {
    // disable i2c so pins can be used for other functions
    // the following if statements should reconfigure the pins properly
    disableI2CPins();
  }
  if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin) && mode != PIN_MODE_SERVO) {
    if (servoPinMap[pin] < MAX_SERVOS && servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) {
      detachServo(pin);
    }
  }
  if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
    reportAnalogCallback(PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin), mode == PIN_MODE_ANALOG ? 1 : 0); // turn on/off reporting
  }
  if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
    if (mode == INPUT || mode == PIN_MODE_PULLUP) {
      portConfigInputs[pin / 8] |= (1 << (pin & 7));
    } else {
      portConfigInputs[pin / 8] &= ~(1 << (pin & 7));
    }
  }
  Firmata.setPinState(pin, 0);
  switch (mode) {
    case PIN_MODE_ANALOG:
      if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
        if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
          pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT);    // disable output driver
#if ARDUINO <= 100
          // deprecated since Arduino 1.0.1 - TODO: drop support in Firmata 2.6
          digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups
#endif
        }
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_ANALOG);
      }
      break;
    case INPUT:
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT);    // disable output driver
#if ARDUINO <= 100
        // deprecated since Arduino 1.0.1 - TODO: drop support in Firmata 2.6
        digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups
#endif
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, INPUT);
      }
      break;
    case PIN_MODE_PULLUP:
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT_PULLUP);
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_PULLUP);
        Firmata.setPinState(pin, 1);
      }
      break;
    case OUTPUT:
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_PWM) {
          // Disable PWM if pin mode was previously set to PWM.
          digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW);
        }
        pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), OUTPUT);
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, OUTPUT);
      }
      break;
    case PIN_MODE_PWM:
      if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) {
        pinMode(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), OUTPUT);
        analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), 0);
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_PWM);
      }
      break;
    case PIN_MODE_SERVO:
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_SERVO);
        if (servoPinMap[pin] == 255 || !servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) {
          // pass -1 for min and max pulse values to use default values set
          // by Servo library
          attachServo(pin, -1, -1);
        }
      }
      break;
    case PIN_MODE_I2C:
      if (IS_PIN_I2C(pin)) {
        // mark the pin as i2c
        // the user must call I2C_CONFIG to enable I2C for a device
        Firmata.setPinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_I2C);
      }
      break;
    case PIN_MODE_SERIAL:
#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
      serialFeature.handlePinMode(pin, PIN_MODE_SERIAL);
#endif
      break;
    default:
      Firmata.sendString("Unknown pin mode"); // TODO: put error msgs in EEPROM
  }
  // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed
}

/*
 * Sets the value of an individual pin. Useful if you want to set a pin value but
 * are not tracking the digital port state.
 * Can only be used on pins configured as OUTPUT.
 * Cannot be used to enable pull-ups on Digital INPUT pins.
 */
void setPinValueCallback(byte pin, int value)
{
  if (pin < TOTAL_PINS && IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
    if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT) {
      Firmata.setPinState(pin, value);
      digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), value);
    }
  }
}

void analogWriteCallback(byte pin, int value)
{
  if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) {
    switch (Firmata.getPinMode(pin)) {
      case PIN_MODE_SERVO:
        if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin))
          servos[servoPinMap[pin]].write(value);
        Firmata.setPinState(pin, value);
        break;
      case PIN_MODE_PWM:
        if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin))
          analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), value);
        Firmata.setPinState(pin, value);
        break;
    }
  }
}

void digitalWriteCallback(byte port, int value)
{
  byte pin, lastPin, pinValue, mask = 1, pinWriteMask = 0;

  if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) {
    // create a mask of the pins on this port that are writable.
    lastPin = port * 8 + 8;
    if (lastPin > TOTAL_PINS) lastPin = TOTAL_PINS;
    for (pin = port * 8; pin < lastPin; pin++) {
      // do not disturb non-digital pins (eg, Rx & Tx)
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        // do not touch pins in PWM, ANALOG, SERVO or other modes
        if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT || Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == INPUT) {
          pinValue = ((byte)value & mask) ? 1 : 0;
          if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == OUTPUT) {
            pinWriteMask |= mask;
          } else if (Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == INPUT && pinValue == 1 && Firmata.getPinState(pin) != 1) {
            // only handle INPUT here for backwards compatibility
#if ARDUINO > 100
            pinMode(pin, INPUT_PULLUP);
#else
            // only write to the INPUT pin to enable pullups if Arduino v1.0.0 or earlier
            pinWriteMask |= mask;
#endif
          }
          Firmata.setPinState(pin, pinValue);
        }
      }
      mask = mask << 1;
    }
    writePort(port, (byte)value, pinWriteMask);
  }
}


// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/* sets bits in a bit array (int) to toggle the reporting of the analogIns
 */
//void FirmataClass::setAnalogPinReporting(byte pin, byte state) {
//}
void reportAnalogCallback(byte analogPin, int value)
{
  if (analogPin < TOTAL_ANALOG_PINS) {
    if (value == 0) {
      analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport & ~ (1 << analogPin);
    } else {
      analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport | (1 << analogPin);
      // prevent during system reset or all analog pin values will be reported
      // which may report noise for unconnected analog pins
      if (!isResetting) {
        // Send pin value immediately. This is helpful when connected via
        // ethernet, wi-fi or bluetooth so pin states can be known upon
        // reconnecting.
        Firmata.sendAnalog(analogPin, analogRead(analogPin));
      }
    }
  }
  // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed
}

void reportDigitalCallback(byte port, int value)
{
  if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) {
    reportPINs[port] = (byte)value;
    // Send port value immediately. This is helpful when connected via
    // ethernet, wi-fi or bluetooth so pin states can be known upon
    // reconnecting.
    if (value) outputPort(port, readPort(port, portConfigInputs[port]), true);
  }
  // do not disable analog reporting on these 8 pins, to allow some
  // pins used for digital, others analog.  Instead, allow both types
  // of reporting to be enabled, but check if the pin is configured
  // as analog when sampling the analog inputs.  Likewise, while
  // scanning digital pins, portConfigInputs will mask off values from any
  // pins configured as analog
}

/*==============================================================================
 * SYSEX-BASED commands
 *============================================================================*/

void sysexCallback(byte command, byte argc, byte *argv)
{
  byte mode;
  byte stopTX;
  byte slaveAddress;
  byte data;
  int slaveRegister;
  unsigned int delayTime;

  switch (command) {
    case I2C_REQUEST:
      mode = argv[1] & I2C_READ_WRITE_MODE_MASK;
      if (argv[1] & I2C_10BIT_ADDRESS_MODE_MASK) {
        Firmata.sendString("10-bit addressing not supported");
        return;
      }
      else {
        slaveAddress = argv[0];
      }

      // need to invert the logic here since 0 will be default for client
      // libraries that have not updated to add support for restart tx
      if (argv[1] & I2C_END_TX_MASK) {
        stopTX = I2C_RESTART_TX;
      }
      else {
        stopTX = I2C_STOP_TX; // default
      }

      switch (mode) {
        case I2C_WRITE:
          Wire.beginTransmission(slaveAddress);
          for (byte i = 2; i < argc; i += 2) {
            data = argv[i] + (argv[i + 1] << 7);
            wireWrite(data);
          }
          Wire.endTransmission();
          delayMicroseconds(70);
          break;
        case I2C_READ:
          if (argc == 6) {
            // a slave register is specified
            slaveRegister = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7);
            data = argv[4] + (argv[5] << 7);  // bytes to read
          }
          else {
            // a slave register is NOT specified
            slaveRegister = I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED;
            data = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7);  // bytes to read
          }
          readAndReportData(slaveAddress, (int)slaveRegister, data, stopTX);
          break;
        case I2C_READ_CONTINUOUSLY:
          if ((queryIndex + 1) >= I2C_MAX_QUERIES) {
            // too many queries, just ignore
            Firmata.sendString("too many queries");
            break;
          }
          if (argc == 6) {
            // a slave register is specified
            slaveRegister = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7);
            data = argv[4] + (argv[5] << 7);  // bytes to read
          }
          else {
            // a slave register is NOT specified
            slaveRegister = (int)I2C_REGISTER_NOT_SPECIFIED;
            data = argv[2] + (argv[3] << 7);  // bytes to read
          }
          queryIndex++;
          query[queryIndex].addr = slaveAddress;
          query[queryIndex].reg = slaveRegister;
          query[queryIndex].bytes = data;
          query[queryIndex].stopTX = stopTX;
          break;
        case I2C_STOP_READING:
          byte queryIndexToSkip;
          // if read continuous mode is enabled for only 1 i2c device, disable
          // read continuous reporting for that device
          if (queryIndex <= 0) {
            queryIndex = -1;
          } else {
            queryIndexToSkip = 0;
            // if read continuous mode is enabled for multiple devices,
            // determine which device to stop reading and remove it's data from
            // the array, shifiting other array data to fill the space
            for (byte i = 0; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) {
              if (query[i].addr == slaveAddress) {
                queryIndexToSkip = i;
                break;
              }
            }

            for (byte i = queryIndexToSkip; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) {
              if (i < I2C_MAX_QUERIES) {
                query[i].addr = query[i + 1].addr;
                query[i].reg = query[i + 1].reg;
                query[i].bytes = query[i + 1].bytes;
                query[i].stopTX = query[i + 1].stopTX;
              }
            }
            queryIndex--;
          }
          break;
        default:
          break;
      }
      break;
    case I2C_CONFIG:
      delayTime = (argv[0] + (argv[1] << 7));

      if (delayTime > 0) {
        i2cReadDelayTime = delayTime;
      }

      if (!isI2CEnabled) {
        enableI2CPins();
      }

      break;
    case SERVO_CONFIG:
      if (argc > 4) {
        // these vars are here for clarity, they'll optimized away by the compiler
        byte pin = argv[0];
        int minPulse = argv[1] + (argv[2] << 7);
        int maxPulse = argv[3] + (argv[4] << 7);

        if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
          if (servoPinMap[pin] < MAX_SERVOS && servos[servoPinMap[pin]].attached()) {
            detachServo(pin);
          }
          attachServo(pin, minPulse, maxPulse);
          setPinModeCallback(pin, PIN_MODE_SERVO);
        }
      }
      break;
    case SAMPLING_INTERVAL:
      if (argc > 1) {
        samplingInterval = argv[0] + (argv[1] << 7);
        if (samplingInterval < MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL) {
          samplingInterval = MINIMUM_SAMPLING_INTERVAL;
        }
      } else {
        //Firmata.sendString("Not enough data");
      }
      break;
    case EXTENDED_ANALOG:
      if (argc > 1) {
        int val = argv[1];
        if (argc > 2) val |= (argv[2] << 7);
        if (argc > 3) val |= (argv[3] << 14);
        analogWriteCallback(argv[0], val);
      }
      break;
    case CAPABILITY_QUERY:
      Firmata.write(START_SYSEX);
      Firmata.write(CAPABILITY_RESPONSE);
      for (byte pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
        if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
          Firmata.write((byte)INPUT);
          Firmata.write(1);
          Firmata.write((byte)PIN_MODE_PULLUP);
          Firmata.write(1);
          Firmata.write((byte)OUTPUT);
          Firmata.write(1);
        }
        if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
          Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_ANALOG);
          Firmata.write(10); // 10 = 10-bit resolution
        }
        if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) {
          Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_PWM);
          Firmata.write(DEFAULT_PWM_RESOLUTION);
        }
        if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
          Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_SERVO);
          Firmata.write(14);
        }
        if (IS_PIN_I2C(pin)) {
          Firmata.write(PIN_MODE_I2C);
          Firmata.write(1);  // TODO: could assign a number to map to SCL or SDA
        }
#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
        serialFeature.handleCapability(pin);
#endif
        Firmata.write(127);
      }
      Firmata.write(END_SYSEX);
      break;
    case PIN_STATE_QUERY:
      if (argc > 0) {
        byte pin = argv[0];
        Firmata.write(START_SYSEX);
        Firmata.write(PIN_STATE_RESPONSE);
        Firmata.write(pin);
        if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) {
          Firmata.write(Firmata.getPinMode(pin));
          Firmata.write((byte)Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0x7F);
          if (Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0xFF80) Firmata.write((byte)(Firmata.getPinState(pin) >> 7) & 0x7F);
          if (Firmata.getPinState(pin) & 0xC000) Firmata.write((byte)(Firmata.getPinState(pin) >> 14) & 0x7F);
        }
        Firmata.write(END_SYSEX);
      }
      break;
    case ANALOG_MAPPING_QUERY:
      Firmata.write(START_SYSEX);
      Firmata.write(ANALOG_MAPPING_RESPONSE);
      for (byte pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
        Firmata.write(IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) ? PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin) : 127);
      }
      Firmata.write(END_SYSEX);
      break;

    case SERIAL_MESSAGE:
#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
      serialFeature.handleSysex(command, argc, argv);
#endif
      break;
  }
}

/*==============================================================================
 * SETUP()
 *============================================================================*/

void systemResetCallback()
{
  isResetting = true;

  // initialize a defalt state
  // TODO: option to load config from EEPROM instead of default

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
  serialFeature.reset();
#endif

  if (isI2CEnabled) {
    disableI2CPins();
  }

  for (byte i = 0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) {
    reportPINs[i] = false;    // by default, reporting off
    portConfigInputs[i] = 0;  // until activated
    previousPINs[i] = 0;
  }

  for (byte i = 0; i < TOTAL_PINS; i++) {
    // pins with analog capability default to analog input
    // otherwise, pins default to digital output
    if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(i)) {
      // turns off pullup, configures everything
      setPinModeCallback(i, PIN_MODE_ANALOG);
    } else if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(i)) {
      // sets the output to 0, configures portConfigInputs
      setPinModeCallback(i, OUTPUT);
    }

    servoPinMap[i] = 255;
  }
  // by default, do not report any analog inputs
  analogInputsToReport = 0;

  detachedServoCount = 0;
  servoCount = 0;

  /* send digital inputs to set the initial state on the host computer,
   * since once in the loop(), this firmware will only send on change */
  /*
  TODO: this can never execute, since no pins default to digital input
        but it will be needed when/if we support EEPROM stored config
  for (byte i=0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) {
    outputPort(i, readPort(i, portConfigInputs[i]), true);
  }
  */
  isResetting = false;
}

void setup()
{
  Firmata.setFirmwareVersion(FIRMATA_FIRMWARE_MAJOR_VERSION, FIRMATA_FIRMWARE_MINOR_VERSION);

  Firmata.attach(ANALOG_MESSAGE, analogWriteCallback);
  Firmata.attach(DIGITAL_MESSAGE, digitalWriteCallback);
  Firmata.attach(REPORT_ANALOG, reportAnalogCallback);
  Firmata.attach(REPORT_DIGITAL, reportDigitalCallback);
  Firmata.attach(SET_PIN_MODE, setPinModeCallback);
  Firmata.attach(SET_DIGITAL_PIN_VALUE, setPinValueCallback);
  Firmata.attach(START_SYSEX, sysexCallback);
  Firmata.attach(SYSTEM_RESET, systemResetCallback);

  // to use a port other than Serial, such as Serial1 on an Arduino Leonardo or Mega,
  // Call begin(baud) on the alternate serial port and pass it to Firmata to begin like this:
  // Serial1.begin(57600);
  // Firmata.begin(Serial1);
  // However do not do this if you are using SERIAL_MESSAGE

  Firmata.begin(57600);
  while (!Serial) {
    ; // wait for serial port to connect. Needed for ATmega32u4-based boards and Arduino 101
  }

  systemResetCallback();  // reset to default config
}

/*==============================================================================
 * LOOP()
 *============================================================================*/
void loop()
{
  byte pin, analogPin;

  /* DIGITALREAD - as fast as possible, check for changes and output them to the
   * FTDI buffer using Serial.print()  */
  checkDigitalInputs();

  /* STREAMREAD - processing incoming messagse as soon as possible, while still
   * checking digital inputs.  */
  while (Firmata.available())
    Firmata.processInput();

  // TODO - ensure that Stream buffer doesn't go over 60 bytes

  currentMillis = millis();
  if (currentMillis - previousMillis > samplingInterval) {
    previousMillis += samplingInterval;
    /* ANALOGREAD - do all analogReads() at the configured sampling interval */
    for (pin = 0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
      if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) && Firmata.getPinMode(pin) == PIN_MODE_ANALOG) {
        analogPin = PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin);
        if (analogInputsToReport & (1 << analogPin)) {
          Firmata.sendAnalog(analogPin, analogRead(analogPin));
        }
      }
    }
    // report i2c data for all device with read continuous mode enabled
    if (queryIndex > -1) {
      for (byte i = 0; i < queryIndex + 1; i++) {
        readAndReportData(query[i].addr, query[i].reg, query[i].bytes, query[i].stopTX);
      }
    }
  }

#ifdef FIRMATA_SERIAL_FEATURE
  serialFeature.update();
#endif
}

Custom parts and enclosures

FirmaTest for Windows as EXE
http://firmata.org/wiki/Main_Page
firmata_test_kajEe5k5BK.exe

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