Project tutorial
Make a Radar Using Ultrasonic Sensor Using Arduino

Make a Radar Using Ultrasonic Sensor Using Arduino © CC BY

This project will show you how to make a radar using an ultrasonic sensor.

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Components and supplies

Apps and online services

About this project

Radars. Enemies. Action. The perfect mix for action movies. Radars, apart from being cool, are pretty useful in real life as well; e.g. when you want to stay up late at night to play your favourite video game but stay undercover, or when you want to keep your prized Lindor truffle safe from the prying hands of your siblings. The most amazing thing about them? You can make one for yourself! All you need are an ultrasonic sensor, evive, a few other easily available components, and some DIYing and you’re good to go!

So, are you ready? Let’s begin in 3, 2, 1… now!

Step 1: Things You'll Need:

Hardware

  • Ultrasonic Sensor
  • Ultrasonic Sensor Holder
  • Servo Motor and its experiments

Software

  • Arduino IDE
  • Processing

Step 2: Attaching the Sensor

We need to attach the Ultrasonic Sensor to its holder.

Fix it using.

Now take the servo and connect it to any servo channel and set the angle at 90 degrees.

Step 3: Completing the Assembly

Take the servo horn and attach it at the base of the Ultrasonic Holder.

Fix it using the self-threading screw.

Now fix this servo horn on top of the servo head, attached to evive.

Thus, your assembly is complete.

Step 4: Circuitry

Connect the servo and the Ultrasonic Sensor as shown in the figure.

Step 5: Code

Once done with the connections, you need to upload the following Arduino Code to evive.

As you also know that we need to plot the graph on your desktop screen, upload the following Processing code on evive.

Step 6: Working

A graph is plotted on the screen.

As the ultrasonic sensor moves, you will be seeing the green line moving. Thus, covering every angle.

If something is kept in the range of the ultrasonic sensor, you may notice the green line turning to red, showing you the sign of the obstacle. Also, you can find the angle and distance at which the object is there from the radar.

Arduino sends the data via serial monitor, and processing take these values and plot the graph.

Step 7: Conclusion

With this, your ultrasonic radar is all set to become your eyes!

Code

Arduino CodeArduino
#include<evive.h>

// Defines Tirg and Echo pins of the Ultrasonic Sensor
const int trig = 2;
const int echo = 3;
   

// Variables for the duration and the distance
long duration;
int distance;

Servo mServo; // Creates a servo object for controlling the servo motor

void setup() 
   {
        pinMode(trig, OUTPUT); // Sets the trigPin as an Output
        pinMode(echo, INPUT); // Sets the echoPin as an Input
        Serial.begin(9600);
       
        mServo.attach(44); // Defines on which pin is the servo motor attached

         tft_init(INITR_GREENTAB);
        tft.setRotation(1);
        tft.fillScreen(ST7735_BLACK);

       tft.setCursor(25,10);
       tft.setTextSize(2);
       tft.setTextColor(ST7735_WHITE,ST7735_BLACK);
       tft.print("STEMpedia");

       tft.setCursor(25,50);
       tft.setTextSize(1.8);
       tft.setTextColor(ST7735_GREEN,ST7735_BLACK);
       tft.print("ULTRASONIC RADAR");

       tft.setTextColor(ST7735_GREEN,ST7735_BLACK);
       tft.setCursor(0,105);
       tft.setTextSize(1.8);
       tft.print("FOR MORE INFORMATION VISIT");
       tft.setCursor(30,115);
       tft.setTextColor(ST7735_WHITE,ST7735_BLACK);
       tft.print("thestempedia.com");

   }

void loop()
     {
      
       // rotates the servo motor from 0 to 180 degrees
       
      for(int i=0;i<=180;i++)
      {  
        
         delay(30);
         distance = calculateDistance();  // Calls a function for calculating the distance measured by the Ultrasonic sensor for each degree
         mServo.write(i);             
         Serial.print(i); // Sends the current degree into the Serial Port
         Serial.print(","); // Sends addition character right next to the previous value needed later in the Processing IDE for indexing
         Serial.print(distance); // Sends the distance value into the Serial Port
         Serial.print("."); // Sends addition character right next to the previous value needed later in the Processing IDE for indexing
      }
      
  // Repeats the previous lines from 180 to 0 degrees
  
  for(int i=180;i>0;i--)
      {  
       
        delay(30);
        distance = calculateDistance();
        mServo.write(i);
        Serial.print(i);
        Serial.print(",");
        Serial.print(distance);
        Serial.print(".");
     }
}

// Function for calculating the distance measured by the Ultrasonic sensor

int calculateDistance()
     { 
  
          digitalWrite(trig, LOW); 
          delayMicroseconds(2);
          // Sets the trigPin on HIGH state for 10 micro seconds
          digitalWrite(trig, HIGH); 
          delayMicroseconds(10);
          digitalWrite(trig, LOW);
          duration = pulseIn(echo, HIGH); // Reads the echoPin, returns the sound wave travel time in microseconds
          distance= duration*0.034/2;
          return distance;
     }
Processing Code for RadarJava
import processing.serial.*; // imports library for serial communication
import java.awt.event.KeyEvent; // imports library for reading the data from the serial port
import java.io.IOException;
Serial myPort; // defines Object Serial
// defubes variables
String angle="";
String distance="";
String data="";
String noObject;
float pixsDistance;
int iAngle, iDistance;
int index1=0;
int index2=0;
PFont orcFont;
void setup() {
  
 size (1366, 700); // ***CHANGE THIS TO YOUR SCREEN RESOLUTION***
 smooth();
 myPort = new Serial(this,"/dev/cu.usbmodem14101", 9600); // starts the serial communication
 myPort.bufferUntil('.'); // reads the data from the serial port up to the character '.'. So actually it reads this: angle,distance.
 orcFont = createFont("OCRAExtended" ,30);
}
void draw() {
  
  fill(98,245,31);
  textFont(orcFont);
  // simulating motion blur and slow fade of the moving line
  noStroke();
  fill(0,4); 
  rect(0, 0, width, height-height*0.065); 
  
  fill(98,245,31); // green color
  // calls the functions for drawing the radar
  drawRadar(); 
  drawLine();
  drawObject();
  drawText();
}
void serialEvent (Serial myPort) { // starts reading data from the Serial Port
  // reads the data from the Serial Port up to the character '.' and puts it into the String variable "data".
  data = myPort.readStringUntil('.');
  data = data.substring(0,data.length()-1);
  
  index1 = data.indexOf(","); // find the character ',' and puts it into the variable "index1"
  angle= data.substring(0, index1); // read the data from position "0" to position of the variable index1 or thats the value of the angle the Arduino Board sent into the Serial Port
  distance= data.substring(index1+1, data.length()); // read the data from position "index1" to the end of the data pr thats the value of the distance
  
  // converts the String variables into Integer
  iAngle = int(angle);
  iDistance = int(distance);
}
void drawRadar() {
  pushMatrix();
  translate(width/2,height-height*0.074); // moves the starting coordinats to new location
  noFill();
  strokeWeight(2);
  stroke(98,245,31);
  // draws the arc lines
  arc(0,0,(width-width*0.0625),(width-width*0.0625),PI,TWO_PI);
  arc(0,0,(width-width*0.27),(width-width*0.27),PI,TWO_PI);
  arc(0,0,(width-width*0.479),(width-width*0.479),PI,TWO_PI);
  arc(0,0,(width-width*0.687),(width-width*0.687),PI,TWO_PI);
  // draws the angle lines
  line(-width/2,0,width/2,0);
  line(0,0,(-width/2)*cos(radians(30)),(-width/2)*sin(radians(30)));
  line(0,0,(-width/2)*cos(radians(60)),(-width/2)*sin(radians(60)));
  line(0,0,(-width/2)*cos(radians(90)),(-width/2)*sin(radians(90)));
  line(0,0,(-width/2)*cos(radians(120)),(-width/2)*sin(radians(120)));
  line(0,0,(-width/2)*cos(radians(150)),(-width/2)*sin(radians(150)));
  line((-width/2)*cos(radians(30)),0,width/2,0);
  popMatrix();
}
void drawObject() {
  pushMatrix();
  translate(width/2,height-height*0.074); // moves the starting coordinats to new location
  strokeWeight(9);
  stroke(255,10,10); // red color
  pixsDistance = iDistance*((height-height*0.1666)*0.025); // covers the distance from the sensor from cm to pixels
  // limiting the range to 40 cms
  if(iDistance<40){
    // draws the object according to the angle and the distance
  line(pixsDistance*cos(radians(iAngle)),-pixsDistance*sin(radians(iAngle)),(width-width*0.505)*cos(radians(iAngle)),-(width-width*0.505)*sin(radians(iAngle)));
  }
  popMatrix();
}
void drawLine() {
  pushMatrix();
  strokeWeight(9);
  stroke(30,250,60);
  translate(width/2,height-height*0.074); // moves the starting coordinats to new location
  line(0,0,(height-height*0.12)*cos(radians(iAngle)),-(height-height*0.12)*sin(radians(iAngle))); // draws the line according to the angle
  popMatrix();
}
void drawText() { // draws the texts on the screen
  
  pushMatrix();
  if(iDistance>40) {
  noObject = "Out of Range";
  }
  else {
  noObject = "In Range";
  }
  fill(0,0,0);
  noStroke();
  rect(0, height-height*0.0648, width, height);
  fill(98,245,31);
  textSize(25);
  
  text("10cm",width-width*0.3854,height-height*0.0833);
  text("20cm",width-width*0.281,height-height*0.0833);
  text("30cm",width-width*0.177,height-height*0.0833);
  text("40cm",width-width*0.0729,height-height*0.0833);
  textSize(25);
  text("Object: " + noObject, width-width*0.875, height-height*0.0277);
  text("Angle: " + iAngle +" ", width-width*0.48, height-height*0.0277);
  text("Distance: ", width-width*0.26, height-height*0.0277);
  if(iDistance<40) {
  text("        " + iDistance+ "  " +" cm", width-width*0.225, height-height*0.0277);
  }
  textSize(25);
  fill(98,245,60);
  translate((width-width*0.4994)+width/2*cos(radians(30)),(height-height*0.0907)-width/2*sin(radians(30)));
  rotate(-radians(-60));
  text("30",0,0);
  resetMatrix();
  translate((width-width*0.503)+width/2*cos(radians(60)),(height-height*0.0888)-width/2*sin(radians(60)));
  rotate(-radians(-30));
  text("60",0,0);
  resetMatrix();
  translate((width-width*0.507)+width/2*cos(radians(90)),(height-height*0.0833)-width/2*sin(radians(90)));
  rotate(radians(0));
  text("90",0,0);
  resetMatrix();
  translate(width-width*0.513+width/2*cos(radians(120)),(height-height*0.07129)-width/2*sin(radians(120)));
  rotate(radians(-30));
  text("120",0,0);
  resetMatrix();
  translate((width-width*0.5104)+width/2*cos(radians(150)),(height-height*0.0574)-width/2*sin(radians(150)));
  rotate(radians(-60));
  text("150",0,0);
  popMatrix(); 
}
evive LibraryC/C++
No preview (download only).

Schematics

Fritzing Diagram of radar
Radar bb lnyqxzp9x6

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