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::vtol:: Umbilical Digital

::vtol:: Umbilical Digital

A never dying Tamagotchi.

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About this project

::vtol:: umbilical digital

Project link: http://vtol.cc/filter/works/umbilical-digital

cybernetic installation

“Umbilical digital” project is a kind of farm where special algorithm that runs on Arduino board “cares about” digital nurslings – Japanese Tamagotchi toys that became in due time one of the first pet simulators. Viewing condition of every nursling, the system performs all the necessary manipulations to support “life” and “good spirit” of digital animals. Through simulation of pressing the buttons, the system behaves like an ideal careful host, and a pet exists as if it was nursed by a human.

Looking at the behavior of “organisms”, the algorithm constantly learns and modifies itself. Stats of all processes in real time are shown on a small thermal printer that keeps “chronicle” of the farm that lets retrace the history of colony and its evolution.

Umbilical digital is an example of Technocenosis - an artificial system limited in time and space, a community of mechanisms with links and common goals, allocated for the purposes of design or construction. The term was introduced by analogy with the biocenosis.

hard:

- Arduino - thermal printer - Tamagotchi x5 - custom electronics

soft:

- Pure data with Arduino trough FIRMATA patch

Moscow, 2018. Commissioned by LABORATORIA Art&Science Foundationspecial for DAEMONS IN THE MACHINE exhibition @ MMOMA.

Code

StandardFirmata.pdeArduino
/*
  Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Hans-Christoph Steiner.  All rights reserved.
  
  This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
  License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
  version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 
  See file LICENSE.txt for further informations on licensing terms.

  formatted using the GNU C formatting and indenting
*/

/* 
 * TODO: use Program Control to load stored profiles from EEPROM
 */

#include <Servo.h>
#include <Firmata.h>

/*==============================================================================
 * GLOBAL VARIABLES
 *============================================================================*/

/* analog inputs */
int analogInputsToReport = 0; // bitwise array to store pin reporting

/* digital input ports */
byte reportPINs[TOTAL_PORTS];       // 1 = report this port, 0 = silence
byte previousPINs[TOTAL_PORTS];     // previous 8 bits sent

/* pins configuration */
byte pinConfig[TOTAL_PINS];         // configuration of every pin
byte portConfigInputs[TOTAL_PORTS]; // each bit: 1 = pin in INPUT, 0 = anything else
int pinState[TOTAL_PINS];           // any value that has been written

/* timer variables */
unsigned long currentMillis;        // store the current value from millis()
unsigned long previousMillis;       // for comparison with currentMillis
int samplingInterval = 19;          // how often to run the main loop (in ms)

Servo servos[MAX_SERVOS];

/*==============================================================================
 * FUNCTIONS
 *============================================================================*/

void outputPort(byte portNumber, byte portValue, byte forceSend)
{
  // pins not configured as INPUT are cleared to zeros
  portValue = portValue & portConfigInputs[portNumber];
  // only send if the value is different than previously sent
  if(forceSend || previousPINs[portNumber] != portValue) {
    Firmata.sendDigitalPort(portNumber, portValue);
    previousPINs[portNumber] = portValue;
  }
}

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * check all the active digital inputs for change of state, then add any events
 * to the Serial output queue using Serial.print() */
void checkDigitalInputs(void)
{
  /* Using non-looping code allows constants to be given to readPort().
   * The compiler will apply substantial optimizations if the inputs
   * to readPort() are compile-time constants. */
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 0 && reportPINs[0]) outputPort(0, readPort(0, portConfigInputs[0]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 1 && reportPINs[1]) outputPort(1, readPort(1, portConfigInputs[1]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 2 && reportPINs[2]) outputPort(2, readPort(2, portConfigInputs[2]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 3 && reportPINs[3]) outputPort(3, readPort(3, portConfigInputs[3]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 4 && reportPINs[4]) outputPort(4, readPort(4, portConfigInputs[4]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 5 && reportPINs[5]) outputPort(5, readPort(5, portConfigInputs[5]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 6 && reportPINs[6]) outputPort(6, readPort(6, portConfigInputs[6]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 7 && reportPINs[7]) outputPort(7, readPort(7, portConfigInputs[7]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 8 && reportPINs[8]) outputPort(8, readPort(8, portConfigInputs[8]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 9 && reportPINs[9]) outputPort(9, readPort(9, portConfigInputs[9]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 10 && reportPINs[10]) outputPort(10, readPort(10, portConfigInputs[10]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 11 && reportPINs[11]) outputPort(11, readPort(11, portConfigInputs[11]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 12 && reportPINs[12]) outputPort(12, readPort(12, portConfigInputs[12]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 13 && reportPINs[13]) outputPort(13, readPort(13, portConfigInputs[13]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 14 && reportPINs[14]) outputPort(14, readPort(14, portConfigInputs[14]), false);
  if (TOTAL_PORTS > 15 && reportPINs[15]) outputPort(15, readPort(15, portConfigInputs[15]), false);
}

// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/* sets the pin mode to the correct state and sets the relevant bits in the
 * two bit-arrays that track Digital I/O and PWM status
 */
void setPinModeCallback(byte pin, int mode)
{
  if (IS_PIN_SERVO(pin) && mode != SERVO && servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].attached()) {
    servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].detach();
  }
  if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
    reportAnalogCallback(PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin), mode == ANALOG ? 1 : 0); // turn on/off reporting
  }
  if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
    if (mode == INPUT) {
      portConfigInputs[pin/8] |= (1 << (pin & 7));
    } else {
      portConfigInputs[pin/8] &= ~(1 << (pin & 7));
    }
  }
  pinState[pin] = 0;
  switch(mode) {
  case ANALOG:
    if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT); // disable output driver
        digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups
      }
      pinConfig[pin] = ANALOG;
    }
    break;
  case INPUT:
    if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
      pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), INPUT); // disable output driver
      digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable internal pull-ups
      pinConfig[pin] = INPUT;
    }
    break;
  case OUTPUT:
    if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
      digitalWrite(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), LOW); // disable PWM
      pinMode(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), OUTPUT);
      pinConfig[pin] = OUTPUT;
    }
    break;
  case PWM:
    if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) {
      pinMode(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), OUTPUT);
      analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), 0);
      pinConfig[pin] = PWM;
    }
    break;
  case SERVO:
    if (IS_PIN_SERVO(pin)) {
      pinConfig[pin] = SERVO;
      if (!servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].attached()) {
          servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin));
      } else {
        Firmata.sendString("Servo only on pins from 2 to 13");
      }
    }
    break;
  case I2C:
    pinConfig[pin] = mode;
    Firmata.sendString("I2C mode not yet supported");
    break;
  default:
    Firmata.sendString("Unknown pin mode"); // TODO: put error msgs in EEPROM
  }
  // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed
}

void analogWriteCallback(byte pin, int value)
{
  if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) {
    switch(pinConfig[pin]) {
    case SERVO:
      if (IS_PIN_SERVO(pin))
        servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].write(value);
        pinState[pin] = value;
      break;
    case PWM:
      if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin))
        analogWrite(PIN_TO_PWM(pin), value);
        pinState[pin] = value;
      break;
    }
  }
}

void digitalWriteCallback(byte port, int value)
{
  byte pin, lastPin, mask=1, pinWriteMask=0;

  if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) {
    // create a mask of the pins on this port that are writable.
    lastPin = port*8+8;
    if (lastPin > TOTAL_PINS) lastPin = TOTAL_PINS;
    for (pin=port*8; pin < lastPin; pin++) {
      // do not disturb non-digital pins (eg, Rx & Tx)
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        // only write to OUTPUT and INPUT (enables pullup)
        // do not touch pins in PWM, ANALOG, SERVO or other modes
        if (pinConfig[pin] == OUTPUT || pinConfig[pin] == INPUT) {
          pinWriteMask |= mask;
          pinState[pin] = ((byte)value & mask) ? 1 : 0;
        }
      }
      mask = mask << 1;
    }
    writePort(port, (byte)value, pinWriteMask);
  }
}


// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/* sets bits in a bit array (int) to toggle the reporting of the analogIns
 */
//void FirmataClass::setAnalogPinReporting(byte pin, byte state) {
//}
void reportAnalogCallback(byte analogPin, int value)
{
  if (analogPin < TOTAL_ANALOG_PINS) {
    if(value == 0) {
      analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport &~ (1 << analogPin);
    } else {
      analogInputsToReport = analogInputsToReport | (1 << analogPin);
    }
  }
  // TODO: save status to EEPROM here, if changed
}

void reportDigitalCallback(byte port, int value)
{
  if (port < TOTAL_PORTS) {
    reportPINs[port] = (byte)value;
  }
  // do not disable analog reporting on these 8 pins, to allow some
  // pins used for digital, others analog.  Instead, allow both types
  // of reporting to be enabled, but check if the pin is configured
  // as analog when sampling the analog inputs.  Likewise, while
  // scanning digital pins, portConfigInputs will mask off values from any
  // pins configured as analog
}

/*==============================================================================
 * SYSEX-BASED commands
 *============================================================================*/

void sysexCallback(byte command, byte argc, byte *argv)
{
  switch(command) {
  case SERVO_CONFIG:
    if(argc > 4) {
      // these vars are here for clarity, they'll optimized away by the compiler
      byte pin = argv[0];
      int minPulse = argv[1] + (argv[2] << 7);
      int maxPulse = argv[3] + (argv[4] << 7);

      if (IS_PIN_SERVO(pin)) {
        // servos are pins from 2 to 13, so offset for array
        if (servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].attached())
          servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].detach();
        servos[PIN_TO_SERVO(pin)].attach(PIN_TO_DIGITAL(pin), minPulse, maxPulse);
        setPinModeCallback(pin, SERVO);
      }
    }
    break;
  case SAMPLING_INTERVAL:
    if (argc > 1)
      samplingInterval = argv[0] + (argv[1] << 7);
    else
      Firmata.sendString("Not enough data");
    break;
  case EXTENDED_ANALOG:
    if (argc > 1) {
      int val = argv[1];
      if (argc > 2) val |= (argv[2] << 7);
      if (argc > 3) val |= (argv[3] << 14);
      analogWriteCallback(argv[0], val);
    }
    break;
  case CAPABILITY_QUERY:
    Serial.write(START_SYSEX);
    Serial.write(CAPABILITY_RESPONSE);
    for (byte pin=0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
      if (IS_PIN_DIGITAL(pin)) {
        Serial.write((byte)INPUT);
        Serial.write(1);
        Serial.write((byte)OUTPUT);
        Serial.write(1);
      }
      if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin)) {
        Serial.write(ANALOG);
        Serial.write(10);
      }
      if (IS_PIN_PWM(pin)) {
        Serial.write(PWM);
        Serial.write(8);
      }
      if (IS_PIN_SERVO(pin)) {
        Serial.write(SERVO);
        Serial.write(14);
      }
      Serial.write(127);
    }
    Serial.write(END_SYSEX);
    break;
  case PIN_STATE_QUERY:
    if (argc > 0) {
      byte pin=argv[0];
      Serial.write(START_SYSEX);
      Serial.write(PIN_STATE_RESPONSE);
      Serial.write(pin);
      if (pin < TOTAL_PINS) {
        Serial.write((byte)pinConfig[pin]);
	Serial.write((byte)pinState[pin] & 0x7F);
	if (pinState[pin] & 0xFF80) Serial.write((byte)(pinState[pin] >> 7) & 0x7F);
	if (pinState[pin] & 0xC000) Serial.write((byte)(pinState[pin] >> 14) & 0x7F);
      }
      Serial.write(END_SYSEX);
    }
    break;
  case ANALOG_MAPPING_QUERY:
    Serial.write(START_SYSEX);
    Serial.write(ANALOG_MAPPING_RESPONSE);
    for (byte pin=0; pin < TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
      Serial.write(IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) ? PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin) : 127);
    }
    Serial.write(END_SYSEX);
    break;
  }
}


/*==============================================================================
 * SETUP()
 *============================================================================*/
void setup() 
{
  byte i;

  Firmata.setFirmwareVersion(2, 2);

  Firmata.attach(ANALOG_MESSAGE, analogWriteCallback);
  Firmata.attach(DIGITAL_MESSAGE, digitalWriteCallback);
  Firmata.attach(REPORT_ANALOG, reportAnalogCallback);
  Firmata.attach(REPORT_DIGITAL, reportDigitalCallback);
  Firmata.attach(SET_PIN_MODE, setPinModeCallback);
  Firmata.attach(START_SYSEX, sysexCallback);

  // TODO: load state from EEPROM here

  /* these are initialized to zero by the compiler startup code
  for (i=0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) {
    reportPINs[i] = false;
    portConfigInputs[i] = 0;
    previousPINs[i] = 0;
  }
  */
  for (i=0; i < TOTAL_PINS; i++) {
    if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(i)) {
      // turns off pullup, configures everything
      setPinModeCallback(i, ANALOG);
    } else {
      // sets the output to 0, configures portConfigInputs
      setPinModeCallback(i, OUTPUT);
    }
  }
  // by defult, do not report any analog inputs
  analogInputsToReport = 0;

  Firmata.begin(57600);

  /* send digital inputs to set the initial state on the host computer,
   * since once in the loop(), this firmware will only send on change */
  for (i=0; i < TOTAL_PORTS; i++) {
    outputPort(i, readPort(i, portConfigInputs[i]), true);
  }
}

/*==============================================================================
 * LOOP()
 *============================================================================*/
void loop() 
{
  byte pin, analogPin;

  /* DIGITALREAD - as fast as possible, check for changes and output them to the
   * FTDI buffer using Serial.print()  */
  checkDigitalInputs();  

  /* SERIALREAD - processing incoming messagse as soon as possible, while still
   * checking digital inputs.  */
  while(Firmata.available())
    Firmata.processInput();

  /* SEND FTDI WRITE BUFFER - make sure that the FTDI buffer doesn't go over
   * 60 bytes. use a timer to sending an event character every 4 ms to
   * trigger the buffer to dump. */

  currentMillis = millis();
  if (currentMillis - previousMillis > samplingInterval) {
    previousMillis += samplingInterval;
    /* ANALOGREAD - do all analogReads() at the configured sampling interval */
    for(pin=0; pin<TOTAL_PINS; pin++) {
      if (IS_PIN_ANALOG(pin) && pinConfig[pin] == ANALOG) {
        analogPin = PIN_TO_ANALOG(pin);
        if (analogInputsToReport & (1 << analogPin)) {
          Firmata.sendAnalog(analogPin, analogRead(analogPin));
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Schematics

__1340_c_3BYdsHWOGw.png
  1340 c 3bydshwogw

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